The country’s literacy is 66%.
Egypt’s constitution establishes the basic national education framework. Equality and equal opportunity are the governing principles of Egypt’s education system. The state declares education as free in all state institutions. ‘Ministry of Education’ is the governing authority of the education system. The body is in charge of the education budget, policies, syllabus, evaluation mechanism and prescribed texts. The ministry operates in co-operation with other ministries and higher institutes of education.
Eight years of education is mandatory. However, the government has plans to extend compulsory education to higher levels.
Higher education is managed by the ‘Ministry of Higher Education’. Educational directorates govern staff and healthcare issues. The ‘Centre for Developing Curricula and Educational Materials’ prepares and modifies educational content, working in co-ordination with advisory committees. ‘The Supreme Council of Universities’ is responsible for the management of universities. ‘The National Centre for Educational Research and Development’ carries out educational research that provides support to the process of making educational policies.
Majority of the financial support of Egypt’s education system is derived from the government. Public contributions towards education are also encouraged by the government.
In 2010, Egypt’s adult literacy rate is registered at 66.4%.
(Sources: ibe.unesco, undp.org)
The ‘Ministry of Health and Population’ (MOHP), established in 1936, is the governing authority of Egypt’s healthcare system. It functions across four levels- the Central, the Health Directorates, Health Districts and Health care providers.
The sectors operating at the Central level are:
- The Health Care and Nursing sector
- The Minister’s Office Affairs
- The Curative Health sector
- The Preventive Health sector
- The Health Regions sector
- The Training and Research sector
- The Preventive Affairs and Endemic Diseases sector
Egypt’s health care system is funded mainly through the Ministry of Finance. The ministry distributes approximately 40% of the allocated budget to public sector authorities such as the Ministry of Education, the Curative Care Organisation, teaching hospitals, the Health Insurance Organisation and other ministries.
The MOHP has collaborated with many international organizations including WHO (World Health Organization), the World Bank, EU and UNICEF to create health awareness across the nation. It also has bilateral agreements with Germany, Italy, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands.
(Source: Ministry of Health, who.int)