Euromoney Country Risk

EUROMONEY COUNTRY RISK

Read the latest analysis on sovereign, geo-political and structural risk

 
Get up to date country risk ratings in 186 countries

Member login



Lost your password?

Euromoney Country Risk

Euromoney Country Risk
List of countries.

Iran Iran

Overview Change score Analyses Experts
 
Sponsored section
Iran

Table of Content


EconomicPoliticalStructural

Iran – Quick View
ECR score32.86 (Mar 2011)
ECR rank126 (Mar 2011)
Economic
GDP 2009 eUSD 375 billion
GNI per capita PPPUSD 11,764
FDI inflowUSD 3.016 billion
Inflation 2010 e9.5%
Central bank assets (2010)USD 108,826.53
Unemployment rate 200911.9%
Government deficit (2010)USD 13.04 billion
Tax revenue (2010)USD 29.41 billion
Political
Government typeIslamic Republic
Recent political crisisNA
Economic freedom score171st
Freedom of information score175th
Corruption perception index146th
Structural
Birth rate19 per ‘000 people
Population balanceBellow 14 - 24.1%
Population balanceAbove 60 male - 7%
Population balanceAbove 60 female - 7.1%
Life expectancy yearsFemale- 70 years
Life expectancy yearsMale- 72.7 years
Mortality rate29.1 per ‘000 live births
Literacy rate82%
Internet access43.2%

[Top] Economic Overview

Iran has a service sector based economy.  The major industries in Iran include petroleum, petrochemicals, cement and other construction materials, food processing, metal fabrication, and armaments.

(Source:Economy watch)

Gross domestic product (GDP)

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at current prices in 2010 is estimated at IRR 3,639,283.4 billion, as compared to IRR 3,233,303.9 billion in 2009.

Iran GDP at current prices

(Source: IMF)

The GDP at constant prices for 2010 was estimated at IRR 500,849.66 billion, compared to IRR 493,170.127 billion in 2009.


Real GDP growth rate

Iran GDP growth rate

(Source: IMF)


The real GDP growth rate in 2010 was estimated at 1.56%, compared to 1.05% in 2009.           

GNI per capita, PPP

GNI per capita at PPP in 2010 amounted to USD 11,764. However it was USD 9,900 in 2005.

Iran GNI per capita at PPP

(Source: UNDP)

Income tax rate

Income tax on individual incomes in Iran varies from 15% to 35%.

 

Tax rate for individuals (IRR)

Tax (%)

0 - 30,000,000

15

30,000,000 - 100,000,000

20

100,000,000 - 250,000,000

25

250,000,000 - 1,000,000,000

30

Above 1,000,000,000

35

(Source: taxrates.cc)

Corporate tax

Standard corporate tax in Iran is 25%, and value added tax rate is 1.5%

(Source: taxrates)

Inflation rate

The average inflation rate in Iran in 2010 was estimated at 9.5%, as compared to 10.8% in 2009.

 

Iran Inflation

(Source: IMF)

FDI inflow

Net FDI inflow in 2009 was USD 3.016 billion. FDI inflow was at its high in 2005 registered at USD 3.135 billion, and shows a downfall from 2006 to 2008.  However it grew in 2009 by 86.74% over previous year.

Iran FDI net inflows

(Source: World Bank)


Banking sector assets

The table below displays the assets of the banking sector in Iran.

 

Iranian banks assets (IRR)

End of Period

March 2010

March 2009

Note cover including gold, foreign exchange, and quota and subscription to international agencies

104,000,000

96,500,000

Notes and coins held at the Central Bank

7,349,481

994,475

Free gold holdings

29,516,907

16,632,793

Foreign exchange assets

703,825,127

735,744,306

Government

19,255,603

21,045,138

Government institutions and corporations

42,731,531

38,835,900

Banks

168,997,970

239,757,659

Fixed assets

7,972,499

7,684,433

Other assets

1,265,698

1,767,304

Customers’ undertakings regarding opened letters of credit and guarantees

10,572,768

17,984,592

Total Assets

1,097,643,532

1,178,808,25

(Source:cbi.ir)

[Top] Financial Indicators & Government Financial

Consumer price index

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) steadily increased from 2004 to 2009. CPI index in 2009 crossed the 200 mark and was recorded at 203, compared to 183.3 in 2008.

Iran CPI

(Source:cbi.ir)

Interest rate

 

Deposit Rate, 2009 (%)

Type of deposit

Interest Rate (%)

Short-term

9-10

Special short-term

10-13

One-year

14.5-15.5

Two-year

15.5

Three-year

16

Four-year

17

Five-year

17.5

(Source: cbi.ir)

Money supply

Money Supply (IRR billion)

 

2009-10

2008-09

Money (M1)

601,697.0

525,482.5

Quasi-money

1,754,192.1

1,375,883.5

Liquidity (M2)

2,355,889.1

1,901,366.0

(Source: cbi.ir)

Government expenditure

Government expenditure in 2010 was estimated at IRR 952,058.55 billion, as compared to IRR 884,797.78 billion in 2009.

Iran Government expenditure

(Source: IMF)

Official exchange rate

The country’s exchange rate has steadily grown since 2007 and is estimated to 10,337.87.

Iran Exchange rate

(Source:cbi.ir)

Government finances

Government net lending/ borrowing

Iran Net lending/ borrowing

 

(Source: IMF)

Total revenue

The government revenue in 2010 was estimated at IRR 965, 959.1 billion, as compared to IRR 829,929.66 billion in 2009.

Iran Total revenue

(Source: IMF)

Tax revenue

The tax revenue in 2009-10 amounted to IRR 209,029.7 billion, as compared to IRR 167,152.5 billion in 2008-09.

(Source:cbi.ir)

Current account balance

The current account balance of Iran in 2010 was estimated at 4.23% of the GDP, as compared to 3.65% in 2009.

Iran Current account balance

(Source: IMF)

Balance of Payments

Balance of payments (IRR million)

 

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

Current Account

10,908

22,903

32,594

Goods

20,936

31,090

39,427

Exports

87,534

101,289

97,667

Imports

66,599

70,199

58,240

Services

-10,442

-9,876

-8,429

Income

-9

1,328

954

Current transfers

424

362

642

Capital and financial account

-6,163

-18,187

-28,851

Errors and omissions

-4,745

-4,717

-3,743


(Source: cbi.ir)

[Top] Labour Force and Employment Overview

Labour force

The labour force in Iran for 2008 was recorded at 27,783,266.3 individuals, as compared to 27,708,703.5 individuals in 2007.

Iran Labour force
(Source: World Bank)

Labour force participation rate

In 2009, the labour force participation rate was recorded at 38.9%, increasing 2.4% over the previous year. The labour force participation rate for males and females was recorded at 62.8% and 14.5% respectively.

(Source:cbi.ir)

Employment

The number of employed people in country in 2009 was recorded at 21 million, increasing 2.4% over the previous year. The majority of the employed individuals were in the services sector (47.4%), followed by manufacturing (31.8%) and finally, agriculture (20.8%).

(Source:cbi.ir)

Unemployment rate

In 2009-10, the country’s unemployment rate was 11.9%.  Specifically, the urban and rural unemployment rates were recorded at 13.5% and 8.3% respectively. Additonally, the unemployment rate for males and females were recorded at 10.8% and 16.8% respectively.

(Source:cbi.ir)

Minimum wage

Minimum nominal wage in 2009-10 was IRR 2,635,200, and the minimum real wage was IRR 1,298,000.

Level of unionisation

Independent trade unions are banned in the country. However, as per the Labour Code, an Islamic Labour Council can be established. These councils are linked to the Workers’ House, which is a worker’s organisation established by authorities and employers.

(Source: ITUC)

[Top] Political Stability

Government stability

Iran has an Islamic Republic form of government. The political structure in Iran includes the President, the members of the Parliament, the representatives of the City and Village Councils, and members of the Experts Assembly.

 Government in Iran is divided into three main branches:

  • Executive
  • Legislative
  • Judiciary

The Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution is the highest authority in Iran, who determines the general guidelines for functioning of the country. The President is the second highest authority and the head of the executive branch. The chief executive is elected directly for a term of four years and chooses the members of cabinet.

The parliament, known as the Majles Shoraye Eslami or the Islamic Parliament of Iran, is unicameral and is comprised of 290 members. Of the total members, 285 are directly elected and the remaining five seats are reserved for the minority groups, one each for Zoroastrians, Jews, Assyrian and Chaldean Christians, Armenian Christians in north south Iran. All the members of parliament are elected for a four-year term.

(Source: en.iran.ir, IPU)

Regulatory environment

Iran is ranked 171st in the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom with an economic freedom score of 42.1 points. Iran ranks 16th out of 17 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Iran Economic Freedom Indices

(Source: heritage.org)

Corruption perception

The corruption perception index (CPI) is a survey to measure the perceived level of corruption across countries worldwide. Iran is ranked 146th on the index, indicating high level of corruption in public departments.

However, the CPI ranking of the country improved from 168th in 2009 to 146th in 2010, with a score of 1.8 and a confidence range of 1.7 to 1.9, indicating the decrease in perceived levels of corruption in the country.

(Source: transparency.org) 


Freedom of information

Iran is ranked 175th in the World Press Freedom Index 2010, with a score of 94.56, indicating that media in the country is highly restricted.

The press and media in Iran was comparatively free during President Khatamis’s government, but has since been targeted by conservatives. Thus, currently the government exercises censorship on all political and human rights’ websites.

There are around 20 national newspapers including:

  • Tehran Times
  • Iran Daily
  • Iran News
  • Aftab-e Yazd (Sun of Yazd)
  • Kayhan (Universe)
  • Resalat (Message)
  • Jomhuri-ye-Eslami (Islamic Republic)
  • Jaam-e Jam

(Source: rsf.org, BBC)

Judicial system

The judiciary is a separate and independent branch of government. The highest judicial authority is the Head of Judiciary, who is appointed by Leader of the State.

The Iranian court system includes:

 -  The Supreme Court - the Supreme Court is the highest court of justice. Chief of Supreme Court is elected by the Head of Judiciary after consultation with the Supreme Court judges

The Court of Administrative Justice – This court has jurisdiction on cases involving complaints against public institution and organisations

The Courts of Appeal - This court reviews cases decided by public and revolutionary courts

The Public Courts – This court deals with civil cases and criminal offences.  Furthermore, it acts as the first instance tribunal

The Revolutionary Courts – This court handles cases dealing with crimes against national security, narcotic drugs, terrorism, state-related misappropriation, bribery and profiteering

The Military Courts – This court deals with cases related to military or security duties by members of the Armed Forces, the Police, and the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps

Office of the Public Prosecutor – This court is responsible for pre-trial investigations and deals with cases where in there is strong evidence of crime to the courts

Dispute Resolution Councils – This court is responsible for settlement of minor civil and criminal cases

(Source: UNODC)

[Top] Demographic Overview

Population

The total population of Iran, as per the 2011 census is estimated at 75 million.

(Source:en.iran.ir)     

Iran Gender balance

Gender ratio

In 2009, males accounted for 50.8% of the total population, and females accounted for the remaining 49.2%. Hence, the gender ratio in the country is not balanced.  Specifically, there are 103.5 males for every 100 females in the country.

(Source: worldbank, UN)

Birth rate

The country’s crude birth rate in 2008 was 19 (per 1,000 people).

(Source: World Bank)

Mortality rate

Infant mortality rate between 2005 and 2010 was recorded at 29.1 (per ‘000 live births).

Average life expectancy rate

The life expectancy for 2005-2010 for males and females was recorded at 70 years and 72.7 years respectively.

Migration and urbanisation

International migrant stock till mid-2010 was recorded at 2,128,700 individuals, or 2.8% of the entire population.

(Source: UN)

Of the total population of 74.7 million, 53.6 million live in urban areas and 21.1 million live in rural areas.

(Source:cbi.ir)

Ethnicity

The major ethnic groups in Iran include Persians, Azeri, Gilaki and Mazandarani, Kurd, Arab, Lur, Baloch and Turkmen among others.

Major religions followed in Iran include Shi'a Muslim, Sunni Muslim, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha’i.

(Source: state.gov)

Human Development Index (HDI)

The country ranks 70th out of 169 countries on the Human Development Index 2010 conducted by the United Nations. The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and gross enrolment in education).

(Source: UNDP)

[Top] Soft Infrastructure

Education and literacy rate

The country’s adult literacy rate between 2005 and 2008 was registered at 82%, whereas the youth literacy rate (population aged between 15 to 24 years) from 2004 to 2008 was 97% for males and 96% for females.

(Source:UNICEF)

Education resources

Education system in Iran is divided into five cycles:

  • Pre-School
  • Primary School
  • Middle (or Guidance) School
  • Secondary School
  • Post-Secondary School

Elementary education is mandatory for all, according to the Iranian constitution.

The higher education system includes:

  • Universities
  • University institutes
  • Technical universities
  • Post Graduation

(Source:iran-embassy-oslo)

 

Healthcare resources

The healthcare system in the country is operated by the government through the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Furthermore, the responsibility of health care at the district level is with the Director of District Health Network, which includes the District Health Centre and the District General Hospital.

Health care facilities in the country include health houses, health posts, rural health centres, Uuban health centres, private solo GPs, private polyclinics, government and social security, and organization hospitals. The majority of the health facilities in the country are controlled by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, which owns about 70% of the hospital beds.

However, the public expenditure on health is about 3% of the GDP.

(Source: WHO, UNDP)

[Top] Hard Infrastructure

Mass public transit

The mass public transport in the country is mainly by roadways and railways.

Roadways

The total length of Iran’s roadway network till 2009 was 180,958 km and included:

  • 1,629 km of freeways
  • 7,516 km of highways
  • 21,402 km of main roads
  • 43,174 km of secondary roads
  • 599 km of urban roads
  • 106,638 km of rural roads

(Source: rmto.ir)

Railways

The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways (IRIR) is government owned. The total length of main lines in the country is 8,565 km.

(Source: rai.ir)

Ports

The major ports in the country are: Port of Amirabad, Port of Anzali, Port of Bandar Abbas, Port of Bushehr, Port of Chabahar, Imam Khomeini Port, Port of Khorramshahr, Port of Nowshahr and Port of Shahid Rajai.

(Source:world port source)

Airports

There are about 64 airports in the country. Some of the major airports are:

 

Town

Airport name

Runway length (ft)

Abadan

Abadan

10,200

Ahwaz

Ahwaz

11,100

Ardabil

Ardabil

10,800

Bam

Bam

11,100

Bandar Abbass

Bandar Abbass Intl

12,000

Bushehr

Bushehr

14,600

Chah Bahar

Konarak

12,000

Dezful

Dezful AB

12,800

Esfahan

Badr AB

10,800

Esfahan

Shahid Beheshti

14,400

Gheshm Island

Dayrestan

13,600

Hamadan

Hamadan

10,500

Hamadan

Hamadan AB

14,600

Karaj

Payam

12,800

Kerman

Kerman

12,400

Kermanshah

Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani

11,200

Khoram Abad

Khoram Abad

10,400

Kish Island

Kish

11,800

Mashhad

Shahid Hashemi Nejad

12,700

Omidiyeh

Omidiyeh AB

13,500

Rasht

Rasht

10,000

Shiraz

Shahid Dastghaib Intl

14,200

Sirjan

Sirjan

12,300

Tabriz

Tabriz Intl

12,000

Tehran

Mehrabad Intl

13,200

Uromiyeh

Uromiyeh

10,700

Yazd

Shahid Sadooghi

13,400

Zahedan

Zahedan Intl

13,9

(Source: Air charter world)

Telecommunications networks

In 2010, Iran had 33,200,000 internet users, or 43.2% of the total population.

 

Fixed telephone lines in country till 2009, were registered at 25,804,100, as compared to 24,800,000 lines in 2008. The fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants was registered at 34.78 in 2009.

In 2009, the country had 52,555,000 mobile subscribers, compared to 43,000,000 subscribers in 2008. Furthermore, mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants were registered at 70.83 in 2009.

(Source: ITU)

Euromoney country risk banner
 
All material subject to strictly enforced copyright laws.
© 2017 Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC.