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Kazakhstan Kazakhstan

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Kazakhstan – Quick View
ECR score47.91 (Mar 2011)
ECR rank74 (Mar 2011)
GDP (2010 Q3)USD 97.95 billion
GNI per capita PPP (2009)USD 10,234
FDI inflow (Q3 2010)USD 51,399 million
Inflation (2010)7.64%
Central bank assetsUSD 57.18 billion (+14.14%)
Unemployment rate (2010)5.8%
Government deficit (2009)USD -3.30 billion
Tax revenue (2009)USD 23.45 billion
Government typePresidential democracy
Recent political crisisNA
Economic freedom score (2011)78th
Freedom of information score (2010)162nd
Corruption perception index (2010)105th
Birth rate22.45 births per ‘000
Population balanceUnder 14 - 24.33%
Population balanceOver 65 – 13.79%
Life expectancy yearsMale 63.62 years
Life expectancy yearsFemale 73.55 years
Mortality rate8.97 deaths per ‘000
Literacy rate99.7%
Internet access34.3%

[Top] Economic Overview

Kazakhstan's GDP was KZT 14,639.3 billion for the first nine months of 2010 compared to KZT 17,007.7 billion in 2009.


                                     Kazakhstan GDP and GDP Growth Rate


(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan, Statistics of Kazakhstan)

GDP per capita


Kazakhstan's GDP per capita in 2009 was KZT 1,070,422 compared to KZT 1,024,175.1 in 2008.


                                         Kazakhstan GDP per capita


(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

Gross national income


GNI in Kazakhstan was USD 109,977.21 million in 2009 compared to USD 96,170.9 million in 2008.

(Source: World Bank)

GNI per capita, PPP


GNI per capita at PPP was USD 10,234 in 2010 compared to USD 8,479 in 2005.

                                       Kazakhstan GNI at PPP

(Source: UNDP)

Income tax rate


Individual income tax in Kazakhstan is levied at 10%.


Corporate tax


The standard corporate tax rate is 20%.


Tax contribution

Total tax rate (% profit)

Corporate income tax


Social Tax


Property tax


Advertising tax


Land tax




Inflation rate

The inflation rate in 2010 was 7.62% compared to 7.32% in 2009. Since 2002 the rate of inflation in Kazakhstan has risen continuously. In 2008 inflation rose sharply reaching its highest rate of 17.14%.


                                        Kazakhstan Inflation Rate

(Source: IMF)

FDI inflow


Total FDI in Kazakhstan was USD 51,399 million for the period January to September 2010. The Netherlands was the single largest contributor to the FDI inflows with an investment of USD 7,592.9 million.

(Source: Central Bank)

Portfolio investment


Total portfolio investment in Kazakhstan was USD 11,802 million in the period January to September 2010.

(Source: Central Bank)

Banking sector assets


Total banking sector assets in Kazakhstan were KZT 8,546.38 billion in December 2010, an increase of 14.14% over the previous year.

Total Assets of banking sector (KZT billion)


December 2010

December 2009

Total Assets



Net Foreign Assets



Claims to non-residents, CFC



Liabilities for nonresidents, CFC



Assets of the National Oil Fund



Other Net Foreign Assets, OFC

- 46.50


Net Domestic Assets



Net Claims to the Central Government









Claims to the Region and Local Government



Resources of the National Oil Fund



Claims to Nonbank Financial Institutions



Claims to Public Nonfinancial Institutions



Claims to Private Nonfinancial Institutions



Claims to Non-profit Institutions



Claims to Households



Other Net Domestic Assets




(Source: Central Bank)

[Top] Financial Indicators & Government Financial

Consumer Price Index


                                       Kazakhstan Consumer Price Index

Base, 2000 = 100

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

Interest rates on saving deposits


The interest rate offered by the banks on saving deposits in Kazakhstan since Januarry 2011 is 6.9%.

(Source: Central Bank)

Interest rates on time deposits


Total interest rates offered on time deposits by the banks in Kazakhstan since January 2011 is 8.8%.


Interest rates on time deposit, December 2010 (%)

up to 3 months

Up to 1 year

Up to 5 years

Over 5 years






(Source: Central Bank)

Money supply (Currency in Circulation)


Total money in circulation in Kazakhstan was KZT 1,148.49 million in December 2010.





                                         Kazakhstan Money Aggregates

(Source: Central Bank)

Government Expenditure


Total government expenditure was KZT 3,746.8 billion in 2009, an increase of 10.4% over the previous year. Kazakhstan's total government spending was 23.6% of GDP in 2009 compared to 21.3% in 2008.

(Source: Central Bank)

Official exchange rate

The official exchange rate stood at KZT 147.35 to 1 USD in 2009.

                                          Kazakhstan Exchange Rate

(Source: Central Bank)

Government finances


Fiscal balance

Kazakhstan's total fiscal deficit in 2009 was KZT 492.6 billion compared to KZT 333.4 billion in 2008.

                                       Kazakhstan Fiscal Balance


(Source: ADB)

Total Revenue

Total government revenue was KZT 3,505.4 billion in 2009, a decrease of 13.11% over the previous year.

Total Revenue of Government of Kazakhstan (KZT billion)




Total revenue



Current revenue






Non-Tax Revenue



Capital receipts







 (Source: ADB)

Tax revenue

Kazakhstan's total tax revenue was KZT 2,228.7 billion in 2009,  compared to KZT 2,819.5 billion in 2008.

(Source: ADB)

Total Grants

The total amount of grants received by Kazakhstan were KZT 1,104.6 billion in 2009 compared to KZT 1,072.4 billion in 2008.


(Source: ADB)

Current Account Balance - Surplus/Deficit

Kazakhstan is expected to record a current account surplus of USD 4,935.6 million in 2010 compared to a deficit of USD 4,248.5 million in 2009.

                                                 Kazakhstan Current Account Balance


(Source: Central Bank, Central Bank)

Balance of Payments

Balance of Payments (USD million)




Current Account



Capital & Financial Account (including errors and omissions)



Reserve assets



(Source: Central Bank)

[Top] Labour Force and Employment Overview

The total labour force in Kazakhstan was 8.61 million in 2010 compared to 8.46 million in 2009. 94.23% of the total labour force were employed and 5.77% were unemployed in 2009.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

The employment rate of the population age group 15-24 years was 5.2% in 2010 compared to 6.7% in the previous year. The employment rate in this age group is on the decline. In 2001, 19.1% of the population in the 15-24 age group were employed.


Employment in Agriculture


In 2009, 27.34% of the total labour force of 2.31 million people were employed in agriculture.

(Source: ADB)

Employment in Industry


Total employment in industry was 0.94 million in 2009, which accounted for 11.12% of the total labour force.

(Source: ADB)

Employment in Services


Total employment in services was 4.65 million in 2009, which accounted for 55.03% of the total labour force.

(Source: ADB)



The total unemployment rate in Kazakhstan was 5.8% in 2010 compared to 6.6% in 2009. The unemployment rate has been declining continuously since 2001.


                                          Kazakhstan Unemployment Rate

P = Preliminary


(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

Minimum wage

Average monthly earnings in Kazakhstan were KZT 77,556 in 2010. Average monthly earnings in agriculture, forestry and fishing were KZT 35,838 and in industry KZT 93,010 in 2010.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

Level of Unionisation


The trade unions in Kazakhstan are provided legal protection by the government. Employees have the right to form a trade union to protect their rights and economic interests.


The Trade Unions Federation of the Republic of Kazakhstan (FPRK) is the largest trade union organisation in Kazakhstan. It has about one million members.

(Source: ILO,

[Top] Political Stability

Kazakhstan has a presidential democracy as a form of government. The constitutional powers are exercised by legislative, executive and judicial branches.

The executive branch consists of the President and Council of Ministers. The president is the head of state and directly elected for a term of five years. The parliament of Kazakhstan is the legislative branch which is headed by the prime minister. The parliament is bicameral and consists of a Senate and Majilis or House of Representatives. The senate is composed of deputies, which are elected for a term of six years. Majilis includes 107 members, of which 98 are directly elected from political parties and nine are elected by the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan.


The government of Kazakhstan is accountable to the President and Parliament.

(Source: Government of Kazakhstan, Government of Kazakhstan)

Regulatory Environment in Kazakhstan


                                                    Kazakhstan Economic Freedom Indices


The country’s economic freedom score is 62.1, making its economy the 78th freest in the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom. Kazakhstan was placed at 11th out of 41 regional countries in the Asia-Pacific region.


Corruption perception


Kazakhstan is ranked 105th with a score of 2.9 on Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2010. The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a survey to measure the perceived level of corruption across countries worldwide.



Freedom of Information


The media in Kazakhstan is restricted. It is not allowed to comment, criticise government, the President and officials.


(Source: BBC)

Kazakhstan was ranked 162nd with a score of 68.50 on the world Press Freedom Index 2010.



The major news papers in Kazakhstan include:

  •          Kazakhstanskaya Pravda
  •          Yegemen Qazaqstan
  •          Ekspress-K
  •          Liter
  •          Karavan


(Source: BBC)

Judicial system


The judicial system in Kazakhstan includes following courts:


  •          Supreme Courts
  •          Local Courts


The Supreme Court is the highest authority in judicial matters. The Chairperson of the Supreme Court and judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the Senate based on recommendations of the country’s Highest Judicial Council.


The chairperson heads the Highest Judicial Council, which includes chairperson of the Constitutional Council, the chairperson of the Supreme Court, Procurator General, Minister of Justice, deputies of the Senate, judges and various others appointed by the President.



(Source: Government of Kazakhstan)

[Top] Demographic Overview

At the beginning of 2010, the total population of Kazakhstan was 16.03 million, compared to 15.77 million in 2009. Women represent 51.9% of the total population and men 48.1%.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

                                                                                                     Kazakhstan Population by Gender


The gender ratio in the country is marginally unbalanced with 1,078 women per 1000 men.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

About 62% of the country’s population is in the age group of 15 to 64 years, followed by 24.33% below 14 years and 13.79% of the population aged above 65 years.

Population by Age

Number of People











 (Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

The total mortality rate in Kazakhstan was 8.97 deaths per 1000 population in 2009. The mortality rate of women was 7.76 deaths per 1000 population, whereas the mortality rate for men was 10.26 deaths per 1000 population. The infant mortality rate in the country was 18.23 deaths per 1000 live births in 2009.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

The birth rate in the country was 22.45 births per 1000 population in 2009. The birth rate of females was 20.93 per 1000 live births; whereas the birth rate of males was 24.09 births per 1000 live births.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

The average life expectancy at birth for males and females was 63.62 years and 73.55 years respectively.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

In 2009, the number of immigrants to Kazakhstan was 41,485 compared to 33,983 emigrants.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

The country was ranked 66th on the Human Development Index 2010 conducted by the United Nations. The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and gross enrolment in education) and having a decent standard of living (measured by purchasing power parity, PPP, income).

(Source: UNDP)

In 2009, 8.2% of the population were below the minimum subsistence level compared to 12.1% in 2008 and 12.7% in 2007.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

[Top] Soft Infrastructure

The literacy rate in Kazakhstan was 99.7% in 2010.

(Source: UNDP)

Education sources

The education system in Kazakhstan consists of four stages - pre-school education and training, secondary education, high school training and postgraduate training.

Secondary education is compulsory and free. It includes general education, primary professional education and vocational training.

The country has a number of educational resources and institutions. The institutions include a pre-school institution, general education schools, professional schools, colleges and higher education institutes. The country had 1,852 preschool institutions, 7,811 general education schools and 306 professional schools in 2009. Kazakhstan has 480 colleges, 148 higher education institutes and 102 Aspirantura (post-graduate study).

Expenditure on education was 2.8% of GDP in the period 2005 to 2008.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan, UNESCO, UN)

Health care

The government of Kazakhstan has implemented various health programs such as the State Program of Public Health and has introduced various other development refrorms between 2005 and 2010.

The country has various hospitals and healthcare institutions. The country had 1,041 hospitals and 120,840 hospital beds in 2008. The country had 131,668 paramedical personnel and 58,945 physicians in 2008. There were 38.4 physicians per 10,000 population and 84 paramedical personnel per 10,000 population in 2007.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)

[Top] Hard Infrastructure

Mass Public Transit

The main forms of public transport used are through road and railway travel.



The total length of roadways in Kazakhstan was 96,800 km in 2009, compared to 93,600 km in 2008.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)


Total length of railways in Kazakhstan was 15,100 km in 2009.

(Source: Statistics of Kazakhstan)


The major ports in Kazakhstan are:

  •          Port of Aktau
  •          Port of Atyrau
  •          Port of Pavlodar
  •          Port of Semey
  •          Port of Oskemen




Airport name

Runway length



10100 ft



14400 ft



11400 ft



7700 ft



8200 ft



10800 ft



8100 ft



7800 ft



8500 ft

 (Source: Air charter world)

Telecommunications networks


Kazakhstan had 118 telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants in 2009.

                                                      Kazakhstan Telephone Subscribers


(Source: undata)

There were 95 Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people in 2008.


                                                       Kazakhstan Mobile Cellular Subscribers


(Source: World Bank)

In 2010, there were 5.3 million internet users, which was 34.3%in terms of the total population.


                                         Kazakhstan Internet Users



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