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Mali Mali

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Mali – Quick View
ECR score36.67 (Mar 2011)
ECR rank110 (Mar 2011)
GDP 2010USD 8.86 billion
GNI per capita PPP 2009USD 1,190
FDI inflow 2010USD 0.17 billion
Inflation 20101.9%
Central bank assets 2010USD 1,246.23 billion
Unemployment rate 20108.8%
Government deficit 2010USD 0.62 billion
Tax revenue 2010USD 1.35 billion
Government typeRepublic
Recent political crisisNA
Economic freedom score 2011114th
Freedom of information score 201026th
Corruption perception index 2010116th
Crude birth rate 200942%
Population balance 2009Below 14 years – 44.17%
Population balance 2009Above 65 years – 2.3%
Life expectancy years 2010Male – 47.6 years
Life expectancy years 2010Female – 49 years
Mortality rate 2010106.4 per ‘000
Literacy rate 201026.2%
Internet access 20101.8%

[Top] Economic Overview

Mali is a landlocked country and the economy is primarily dependent on agriculture. Approximately 80% of Mali's labor force is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Mali’s main exports include cotton, limestone, phosphate and salt. Mali is the third largest producer of gold on the African continent.

(Source: economy watch)

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Mali's GDP at current prices in 2010 was CFA 4,454.5 billion compared to CFA 4,173.4 billion in 2009. The GDP for 2011 and 2012 are projected to be CFA 4,759.9 billion and CFA 5108.3 billion respectively.



(Source: page 9)


GDP growth

The GDP growth rate in 2010 was 5.2% compared to 4.4% in 2009. GDP is projected to grow by 4.2% and 4.4% in 2011 and 2012 respectively.

(Source: page 10)

Gross national income (GNI) per capita at PPP

The GNI per capita at PPP in Mali in 2009 was USD 1,190 compared to USD 1,150 in 2008.


(Source: World Bank)

Income tax rate

The highest tax rate on individual income in Mali is 50%. (Source:


Corporate tax

The highest corporate tax is 35%. (Source:

Inflation rate

The inflation rate in Mali in 2010 was 1.9% and has remained unchanged from 2009. The inflation rate in 2008 was 2.2%.


(Source: page 4)

FDI Inflow

Mali’s FDI inflow in 2010 was estimated at CFA 87 billion and is projected to increase to CFA 107 billion in 2012.


(Source: page 12) Projected - P

Portfolio investment inflow

The net portfolio investment in 2010 was CFA 4.4 billion and is projected to remain unchanged in 2011 and 2012.


(Source: page 12) Projected - P

Banking sector assets

The net external assets at the end of December 2010 amounted to CFA 656,208 billion.

(Source: page 14)

[Top] Financial Indicators & Government Financial


Consumer price index

Mali's CPI has risen steadily between 2001 and 2010. Mali’s CPI in 2010 was 133.41 compared to 130.43 in 2009.


(Source: IMF) Estimated - E


Money supply

Money Supply (CFA billion)


December 2010

December 2009

December 2008













(Source: page 14)


Government expenditure

Government expenditure in 2010 was CFA 1,219.8 billion and is projected to be CFA 1,299.7 billion in 2011.

(Source: page 7) Projected - P



Public debt


General government debt in 2010 was estimated at CFA 1,188.79 billion or 25.8% of Mali’s GDP.


(Source: IMF) Estimated - E


Official exchange rate


(Source: AFDB)

Government finances

Fiscal balance

The fiscal deficit in 2010 was CFA 314.1 billion. The fiscal balance in 2011 is projected to be in deficit of CFA 213.5 billion.


(Source: page 7) Projected - P


Total revenue

Mali's total revenue in 2010 was CFA 780.4 billion and is projected to be CFA 849.1 billion in 2011.



(Source: page 7) Projected - P



Tax revenue


The total tax revenue in 2010 was CFA 677 billion and is projected to be CFA 747.5 billion in 2011.

(Source: page 7) Projected - P


Total grants

The total grants in 2010 amounted to CFA 184.4 billion and is projected to be CFA 237.1 billion in 2011.

(Source: page 7) Projected - P


Current account balance


(Source: page 11) Projected - P

Balance of payments


Balance of Payments (CFA billion)





Current Account Balance




Capital and Financial Account




Balance of Payments






(Source: page 12)

[Top] Labour Force and Employment Overview

Labour force

The labour force in Mali in 2008 was 3.66 million.


Mali Labour force

(Source: World Bank)


Unemployment rate

Mali’s unemployment rate is estimated at 8.8%.


Minimum wages

The minimum wage in 2011 is CFA 28,465 per month. The minimum wage for a 19-year old employee or an apprentice is approximately USD 14.8 per month.

(Source: minimum-wage,

Level of unionisation

The main trade unions in Mali include –

  • Confédération Syndicale des Travailleurs du Mali (CSTM)
  • Union Nationale des Travailleurs du Mali (UNTM)

(Source: ICFTU)

[Top] Political Stability

Government stability

Mali has a republican political system. The government consists of three main bodies which are the executive, the legislative and the judiciary. The president is the head of state and is elected for a five year term. The prime minister is the head of government and is appointed by the president.

The national assembly is the legislative arm of the government. The national assembly is unicameral and consists of 147 members, who are directly elected for a five year term.

(Source: traveldocs, IPU)

Regulatory environment

Mali’s economic freedom score is 56.3, making it the114th freest country in 2011 Index of Economic Freedom.


Mali Economic Freedom Indices


Corruption perception

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a survey to measure the perceived level of corruption across countries worldwide. Mali is ranked 116th on the 2010 index indicating low level of corruption in public departments.

Mali's CPI ranking slipped from 111th in 2009 to 116th in 2010 with a score of 2.7 and confidence range of 2.4 to 3.2.



Freedom of information

Mali is ranked 26th in the World Press Freedom Index 2010 with a score of 8.00.

The press and media in Mali enjoy a high degree of freedom compared to other countries in Africa.

Major news papers in Mali include:

  • L'Aurore
  • L'Essor
  • Le Republicain
  • L'Independent
  • I nfo Mati
  • Les Echos

(Source: BBC,

Judicial system

The Judiciary system in Mali is independent of the government. Mali’s laws are based on French civil and customary law.

The judiciary in Mali includes a Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and a Court of Appeal. The system also includes two magistrate courts of first instance, courts for labour disputes and a special court of state security.


[Top] Demographic Overview

The total population of Mali mid-2009 was 13 million, increasing at a rate of approximately 2.36% over 2009.


In mid-2009, 50.6% of the 13 million population were female. Mali’s gender ratio is unbalanced with only 97.6 men for every 100 women.

Mali Population by gender

(Source: AFDB, UN)

In 2009, individuals below 14 years of age accounted for 44.17% of the population and people above 65 years of age made up 2.3% of the population.

(Source: AFDB)

The infant mortality rate in Mali between 2005 and 2010 was 106.4 (per thousand). The crude birth and death rate in mid-2009 was 42.3 (per thousand) and 15.4 (per thousand).


(Source: AFDB, UN)

The life expectancy at birth for the total population was 48.8 years. The life expectancy for men and women between 2005 and 2010 was 47.6 years and 49 years respectively.

(Source: AFDB, UN)

The international migrant stock in mid-2010 included 162,700 people; this was approximately 1.2% of the population. Approximately 32.7% of the population in mid-2009 was urbanised.

(Source: AFDB, UN)

The major ethnic groups in Mali include Manding (Bambara or Bamana, Malinke), Fulani, Saracolé, Mianka Songhai, Tuareg and Maur.


Mali ranked 160th out of 169 countries on the Human Development Index 2010 conducted by the United Nations. The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and gross enrolment in education).

(Source: UNDP)

[Top] Soft Infrastructure

Education/literacy rate

Mali's adult literacy rate was 26.2% in 2010.  (Source: UNDP)

Education System

The education system in Mali includes:

Primary education system - Primary education begins at the age of seven and lasts for six years. Mali's enrolment rate in primary school is low.

Secondary education system - Secondary education in Mali begins at the age of 17 and consists of six years. This system is divided into three further stages.

Higher education system – Higher education includes colleges and universities for administration, engineering, medicine, dentistry and schools of business.

Apart from the primary and secondary education system, Mali also has the principle education system known as public education which is provided free of charge and is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16.

The combined gross enrolment ratio for both males and females is estimated at 46.9%. The expenditure on education in 2008 was approximately 3.8% of GDP.

(Source: Ministry of Education, UNDP)

Healthcare resources

 The Ministry of Health is responsible for health care in Mali.


The major health problems in Mali include malnutrition and inadequate hygiene and sanitation. The population of Mali also lacks a supply of safe drinking water and proper sanitation services. These problems lead to major diseases such as malaria, enteritis, leprosy and tuberculosis. The percentage of the adult population suffering from HIV/AIDS has also been on the rise since 2001.

Approximately 10% of the population in Mali is undernourished. The total expenditure on health is approximately 2.9% of GDP.

(Source: Ministry of Health, UNDP)

[Top] Hard Infrastructure

The main mode of public transport in Mali is by road, railway and air travel.


The total length of the highways in Mali is approximately 15,100 km, of which 1,827 km are paved.




Mali has approximately 729 km of railroads.





Mali is a landlocked country and has no sea ports. Koulikoro, near the capital city of Bamako, serves as a river port.




There are 26 airports in Mali. Some of the major airports are:



Airport name

Runway length (ft)




























Telecommunications networks

In 2010, Mali had 250,000 internet users and the internet penetration rate was 1.8% of population.



Mobile cellular subscriptions

Fixed telephone lines
















(, ITU, ITU)

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