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Myanmar Myanmar

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Myanmar – Quick View
ECR score21.38 (Mar 2011)
ECR rank156 (Mar 2011)
GDP 2011 eUSD 6,242.47 billion
GNI per capita PPP 2010USD 1,596
FDI inflow 2011 (till Jan)USD 19,461.82 million
Inflation 2011 e9.25%
Central bank assets 2008USD 298,492.62 million
Unemployment rate 20114.02%
Government deficit 2011 eUSD 156.58 billion
Tax revenue 2011 (till April)USD 132,670.17 billion
Government typeMilitary regime
Recent political crisisNA
Economic freedom score174th
Freedom of information score174th
Corruption perception index176th
Crude birth rate 200920 (per ‘000)
Population balanceUnder 14- 26.8%
Population balanceAbove 60 - 7.5%
Life expectancy years62.7
Under-5 mortality rate 200898 (per ‘000)
Literacy rate 201089.9%
Internet access 20100.2%

[Top] Economic Overview

Myanmar is rich in natural resources such as pearls, jade,  offshore oil and gas deposits. It is the world’s largest exporter of teak. Myanmar’s economic growth has been hampered by government intervention, an inefficient public financial system and corrupt bureaucracy.


(Source: Heritage.org, bbc)

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Myanmar GDP


(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

Myanmar’s GDP grew steadily between 2005 and 2008. In 2011, it is estimated reach MMK 40,959.92 billion.


GDP growth rate

Myanmar GDP growth rate


(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

In 2005, the GDP growth rate in Myanmar was 13.57%. The rate is estimated to reach 5.02% in 2011.

GNI per capita, PPP (USD)

In 2010, Myanmar’s GNI per capita (PPP) was USD 1,596 compared to USD 1,102 in 2005.


Tax rate

The income tax rate on individual income in Myanmar is 30%.

The standard corporate tax rate is 30% and VAT is progressive from 5% to 30%.

(Source: Tax Rates)



Myanmar Inflation


(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

The inflation rate shows a steady decline between 2006 and 2009. In 2011, inflation is estimated to reach 9.25%.


Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow

Myanmar FDI


(Source:National Statistics)

In 2009, FDI inflow in Myanmar was USD 19,461.82 million.

Banking sector assets

In 2008, total banking sector assets amounted at MMK 1,956,157 million. This accounted for 8.62% of Myanmar’s GDP. State bank accounted for MMK 1,046,870 million i.e. 4.62% of GDP. Private bank assets amounted at MMK 909,287 million of total assets i.e. 4.01% of GDP in the same year.

(Source:Central Banks Research and Training Centre)

[Top] Financial Indicators & Government Financial

Consumer price index (CPI)

Myanmar CPI


(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

CPI in Myanmar has risen steadily from 829.85 in 2005 to 1,619.89 in 2008. In 2011, the index is estimated to reach 2,060.17.

Interest rate

Interest Rate (%)


Deposit Rate

Lending Rate

Central Bank Rate

2009 (Oct)

























In 2009, the deposit rate was 12%, while the lending rate was 17%. 


Money supply


Myanmar Money and quasi money

(Source:World Bank)

Between 2006 and 2009, Myanmar’s money supply grew consistently. In 2009, the money supply amounted to MMK 6,576.27 billion.


Government expenditure

Myanmar Government expenditure


(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

Government expenditure increased steadily between 2005 and 2008. In 2011, the amount was estimated to be MMK 3,801.39 billion.

Public debt level

In 2009, Myanmar’s external debt was USD 5,187.48 million.

(Source: World Bank)


Official exchange rate

Myanmar Exchange rate


(Source: National Statistics)

In 2011, MMK against the EUR exchange rate was 7.31. 


Government finances

Fiscal balance

Myanmar Fiscal balance

(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

Myanmar was running a fiscal deficits between 2005 and 2008. In 2011, the government is estimated have a fiscal deficit of MMK 1,027.17 billion. 


Total revenue

Myanmar Government revenue


(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

Myanmar’s total revenue increased steadily from MMK 818.92 billion in 2005 to MMK 1,904.65 billion in 2008. In 2011, the value is estimated to reach MMK 2,774.21 billion.


Tax revenue

Myanmar Tax revenue


(Source:National Statistics)


Tax revenues increased steadily from MMK 676,742 million in 2007 to MMK 1,036,808 million in 2010. In 2011, the preliminary estimates are MMK 871,251 million.

Current account balance

Myanmar Current account balance


(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

The current account balance fluctuated between 2005 and 2010. In 2011, the balance is estimated to reach a deficit of MMK 0.85 million.


Balance of payments

Myanmar Trade balance


(Source: National Statistics)

Myanmar’s exports have consistently exceeded imports between 2007 and 2011. In 2011, exports accounted for MMK 40,948.70 million and imports for MMK 24,441.80 million.


[Top] Labour Force and Employment Overview

Labour force


Myanmar Labour force

(Source: World Bank)

Myanmar’s labour force increased steadily from 26.24 million in 2006 to 27.02 million in 2009.

Labour force participation rate

The labour force participation rate for men was 85% in 2008. The participation rate for women in the same year was 64%.

(Source: World Bank, World Bank)

Unemployment rate

In 2011, the unemployment rate in Myanmar is estimated to reach 4.02%.

(Source: imf.org)


Minimum wage

The minimum wage rate prevailing in Myanmar is MMK 15,000 per month for public sector workers and MMK 550 per day for day labourers. 

(Source: Minimum Wage.org)

Level of unionisation

There is one single trade union in Myanmar called the ‘Federation of Trade Unions - Burma (FTUB).’


[Top] Political Stability

The government in Myanmar is run by the military. Myanmar has a bicameral parliament and is known as the Assembly of Union. The president is the head of state and serves for a term of five years. There are 440 statutory members of parliament. 330 members are directly elected and 110 are appointed through election.

In 2011, Thein Sein has been the president of Myanmar.

There are approximately 16 political parties in Myanmar and the main political parties in Myanmar are:

·         Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP)

·         Shan Nationalities Democratic Party

·         National Unity Party (NUP)

·         Rakhine Nationalities Development Party

(Source: Inter Parliamentary Union, bbc)


Regulatory environment

Myanmar Economic Freedom Indices



Myanmar is ranked 174th on the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom with a score of 37.8. Myanmar ranks 40th out of 41 regional countries in the Asia Pacific region.



Corruption perception

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a survey to measure the perceived level of corruption across countries worldwide. Myanmar is ranked 176th on this list which indicates that the corruption levels in the public departments are fairly high, compared to neighbouring nations such as  India and Thailand.

Myanmar has risen in the CPI rankings since 2009. It was ranked 178th with a score of 1.4, indicating perceived levels of corruption have slightly decreased in Myanmar.

(Source:Transparency.org, Transparency.org)

Freedom of information

The media in Myanmar is restricted. The media in Myanmar is controlled by the military and has restrictions on what it can publish. Foreign radio is the only source of information in Myanmar. (Source: bbc)

The World Press Freedom Index 2010 ranks Myanmar at 174th position with a score of 94.5, indicating the media in Myanmar is restricted.

(Source: rsf.org)


·         Kyehmon

·         Myanmar Alin

·         New Light of Myanmar

·         Myanmar Times


·         TV Myanmar

·         MRTV-3

·         Myawaddy TV

·         TV5


·         Radio Myanmar

·         City FM

·         Democratic Voice of Burma

(Source: bbc)


Judicial system

The judiciary in Myanmar consists of :

·         Supreme Court of Justice

·         Regional Courts

·         First Instance Courts

The Supreme Court is the highest court of justice. The Regional court is the next highest court of justice and has 14 divisions in the country; The First Instance Courts include District Courts and Township Courts.


[Top] Demographic Overview

In 2009, Myanmar’s female population was 51.2% of the total population. 

(Source: World Bank)


Myanmar Population by gender
Myanmar Population

(Source: imf.org) e = estimated

Myanmar’s population has increased annually between 2005 and 2011. In 2011, the population is estimated to be 62.42 million.

Population balance

In 2009, the population below 14 years of age made up 26.8% and the population above 60 years of age made up 7.5% of the total population.

(Source: un.org)


he international migrant stock until mid 2010 was 88,700 people. This made up 0.2% of the population.

(Source: un.org)

Gender ratio

Myanmar's gender ratio was 101.2 (men per 100 women) in 2010.

(Source: undp, page: 182) 

Life expectancy

In 2010, the average life expectancy in Myanmar was 62.7 years and the median age was 27.9 years.

(Source: undp, undp, page: 182) 

Under-5 mortality rate

In 2008, the under-5 mortality rate was 98 (per 1000 live births).

(Source: undp)

Crude birth rate

In 2009, the crude birth rate was 20 (per ‘000).   

(Source: unicef.org)


33.7% of Myanmar’s population is classified as urban.          

(Source: undp, page: 182) 

Ethnic groups

The main ethnic groups in Myanmar are Burman, Shan, Karen, Rakhine, Chinese, Mon, Indian and other.


Human development index

Myanmar ranked 132nd out of 169 countries on the Human Development index 2010 conducted by the United Nations. The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and gross enrolment in education) and having a decent standard of living (measured by purchasing power parity, PPP, income). 

(Source: undp, page: 146) 

[Top] Soft Infrastructure


The Ministry of Education is the governing authority of Myanmar’s education system. It is responsible for promoting educational reforms and making education available to all. The ministry is also in charge of policy formulation and co-ordination of various administrative bodies. The Myanmar Examination Board administers government examinations. The Myanmar Education Research Bureau undertakes educational research.

The education system consists of basic education, higher education, technical, agricultural and vocational education.

Basic education consists of:

·         Primary

·         Middle

·         High

Higher education consists of:  

·         Professional education

·         Universities and colleges

Technical, agriculture and vocational education include:

·         Agricultural  high school

·         Technical high school

·         Engineering technology courses

(Source: Ministers of Education Organization)

In 2010 Myanmar’s literacy rate was 89.9%. The gross enrolment ratio in education in 2010 was 56.3%.



Myanmar’s healthcare sector is governed by the Ministry of Health. Technological advancements have helped improve the healthcare status of Myanmar. Health care services are provided through government and the private sector. The Ministry of Health also is also responsible for funding of the system.

Total government expenditure on public health in 2010 accounted for 0.2% of GDP.

Community health care services in Myanmar consist of:

·         Primary medical care and referral of patients

·         Nutrition development

·         Maternal, newborn and child health care

·         School health

Leading causes of death in Myanmar are infectious and parasitic diseases and diseases of the circulatory system.

(Source: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Health)

[Top] Hard Infrastructure


In 2006, the total road length in Myanmar was 91,240 km.

(Source: GRSP Road Safety, page: 2)


There are five ports in Myanmar:

·         Port of Bassein

·         Port of Moulmein

·         Port of Sittwe

·         Port of Thilawa

·         Port of Yangon

(Source:World Port Source)


There are 45 airports in Myanmar. Some of the major airports are:


Airport name

Runway length (ft)


























West Nampong


















Yangon Intl


(Source: Air Charter)


Telephone lines

Myanmar Fixed telephone lines


(Source: itu.int)

In 2009, the number of fixed telephone line users in Myanmar was 552,311.


Mobile cellular subscriptions

Myanmar Mobile cellular subscribers


(Source: itu.int)

Myanmar’s mobile phone subscriptions rose steadily between 2005 and 2009. In 2009, the number of mobile phone subscribers was 502,005.

Approximately 110,000 out of 53,414,374 people, i.e. 0.2 % of population used the internet in 2010. Between 2000 and 2010, the number of nternet users grew by 10,900.0 %.

(Sources: Internet World Stats)

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