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Sudan Sudan

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Sudan

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EconomicPoliticalStructural

Sudan – Quick View
ECR score29.33 (Mar 2011)
ECR rank137 (Mar 2011)
Economic
GDP 2010USD 64.72 billion
GNI per capita PPP 2010USD 2,051
FDI inflow 2009USD 2,923 million
Inflation 201011.3%
Central bank assets 2009USD 9,847.58 million
Unemployment rate 201013.73%
Government deficit 2009USD 2,005.67 million
Tax revenue (Till Q2)USD 9,071.63 million
Political
Government typePresidential Democratic
Recent political crisisNA
Economic freedom score 2011NA
Freedom of information score 2010172nd
Corruption perception index 2010172nd
Structural
Crude birth rate 200930.7 per '000
Population balance 2009Under 14 – 39.1%
Population balance 2009Over 64 – 3.6%
Life expectancy 2010Male - 56.5 years
Life expectancy 2010Female - 59.5 years
Mortality rate 2008109 per '000
Literacy rate 201060.9%
Internet access 20104.6%

[Top] Economic Overview

Sudan’s economy has shown economic growth in the past few years after decades of civil wars had slowed down the economy. The economy is primarily dependent on agriculture. The country is also rich in production and export of natural resources like crude oil and petroleum. The GDP growth rate of Sudan showed an increase of over 10% per annum during the year 2006 and 2007.

(Source: economywatch)

 

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The country’s GDP at current prices in 2010 is estimated at SDG 152.95 billion. For the year 2009, the preliminary GDP was SDG 148.14 billion.

Sudan GDP at current prices

(Source: Central Bank of Sudan page: 151, IMF) Preliminary – P

GDP growth

The country’s preliminary GDP growth rate in 2009 was 6.1% and decreased to 21.79% in 2008. The GDP growth rate was recorded the highest at 10.8% in the year 2001. However in 2010 the GDP growth rate was 4.5%.

Sudan GDP growth rate

 

(Source: Central Bank of Sudan page: 15, IMF) Preliminary – P

GNI per capita at PPP

The GNI per capita at PPP decreased from USD 1,084 in 1980 to USD 1,111 in 1995 and thereafter increased. In 2010, the country’s GNI per capita at PPP was recorded at USD 2,051.

Sudan GNI per capita at PPP

(Source: UNDP page 4)

Income Tax Rate

In Sudan, the highest tax rate on individual income is 10%.

(Source: heritage.org)

Corporate tax

In Sudan, the top standard corporate tax is 35%. (Source: heritage.org)

Inflation Rate

The average inflation rate in Sudan has been on the higher side, at about 11% between 2007 and 2009. The inflation rate in 2009 was 10.5% as compared to 14% in 2008.

Sudan Inflation

 

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa page: 355, heritage)

FDI Inflow

From 2005 to 2008, FDI inflow increased from USD 2,305 million to USD 2,601 million. The country’s FDI inflow was highest in the year 2006 at USD 3,541 million.

Sudan FDI net inflows

 

(Source: Central Bank of Sudan page: 161)

Portfolio Investment Inflow

Sudan Portfolio investment inflow

 

(Source: Central Bank of Sudan page: 161)

Banking sector assets

The table below shows the assets of Bank of Sudan:

 

Total assets (SDG million)

End of Period

2009

2008

Bank Notes and Banks Balances

3,106.7

3,966.4

Foreign Securities

105.9

105.8

Other Foreign Assets

3.5

3.4

Loans and Advances to Banks

737.1

714.8

Temporary Advances to Government under Article (48–1)

2,876.9

1,432

Long Term Loans to the Government

1,326

1,916

Loans and Advances to the Public Enterprises

5.3

8.3

Contributions in Local Banks Capital

1,042

934.6

Other Contributions

236.8

234.7

Other Accounts

13,832.6

11,885.5

Total Assets

23,272.8

21,201.5

 

(Source: Central Bank of Sudan page: 44)

[Top] Financial Indicators & Government Financial

Consumer price index

The consumer price index of Sudan is growing steadily, in 2009 it was recorded at 226.1, as compared to 204.7 in 2008.

Sudan Consumer Price Index

 

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Money Supply

Money Supply (SDG million)

 

2009

2008

2007

Currency With Public

8,066.2

6,774.6

5,639.7

Demand Deposits

8,040.2

6,862.9

5,734.9

Quasi–Money

12,208.1

9,295.7

8,340

Money Supply

28,314.5

22,933.2

19,714.6

(Source: Central Bank of Sudan)

Government expenditure

The total expenditure in 2009 amounted to SDG 27,952 million, as compared to SDG 28,169 million in 2008.

Sudan Total expenditure

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Public debt

External public debt in 2009 amounted to USD 31,322 million, as compared to USD 28,619 million in 2008.

Sudan Public debt

 

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Private debt

External private debt in 2009 amounted to USD 5,387 million, as compared to USD 5,041 million in 2008.

Sudan External private debt

 

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Official exchange rate

SDG/USD official exchange rate was recorded at 2.31 in 2009.

Sudan Exchange rate

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Government finances

Fiscal balance

Fiscal deficit for 2009 is SDG 4,740 million, as compared to a deficit of SDG 1,746 million in 2008.

Sudan Fiscal balance

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Total revenue

Total revenue in 2009 amounted to SDG 23,212 million, as compared to SDG 26,423 million in 2008.

Sudan Total revenue

 

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Tax revenue

Tax revenue for 2009 amounted to SDG 21,439 million, as compared to SDG 25,018 million in 2008.

Sudan Tax revenue

 

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Total grants

The total grants in 2009 amounted to SDG 886 million, as compared to SDG 572 million in 2008.

Sudan Total grants

 

(Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa)

Current account balance

The current account deficit of Sudan in 2009 was USD 3,908.1 million, as compared to a deficit of USD 1,575.7 million in 2008.

Sudan Current account balance

 

(Source: Central Bank of Sudan)

Balance of payments

Balance of Payments (USD million)

 

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

Current Account

-3,908.1

-1,575.7

-3268.2

-4919.4

2830.3

Capital and Financial Account

4,663.3

1,218.6

2945.5

4611

2427.2

Current And Capital and Financial A/Cs Deicit (-) or Surplus (+)

755.2

-357.2

-322.7

-308.4

-403.1

Errors and Omissions

-1,257.2

378.3

40.7

99.8

933.6

Convertible Currencies Reserves/ Overall Balance

502.0

-21.1

282

208.6

530.53

 

[Top] Labour Force and Employment Overview

Labour force

The labour force of Sudan in 2008 was 13.09 million.

Sudan Labour force

(Source: World Bank)

The total labour force participation rate in 2008 was 52%, and has remained constant since 2005. The labour force participation rate for males and females was recorded at 74% and 31% respectively.

(Source: World Bank)

Unemployment rate

In 2010, the unemployment rate of the labour force in Sudan was 13.73%.

(Source: economywatch)

Minimum wages

The minimum wage of Sudan in 2011 was SDG 124 per month.

(Source: minimum-wage

Level of unionisation

As per the 1992 Trade Union Act, a single trade union federation is allowed, the Sudan Workers Trade Union Federation (SWTUF), which is controlled by the government. Independent trade unions are not allowed to function. Most of the trade unions’ activities are controlled by the government including the elections and funds.

(Source: ITUC)

[Top] Political Stability

 

Government stability

 

Sudan is a presidential democracy, where the president is the head of the state and the head of government. The country’s president is directly elected from all citizens.

 

The powers are divided into three branches, namely, the executive, the judiciary and the legislature. The executive powers in the country are vested with the president, his vice presidents and the ministers.

 

The country’s parliament, known as the national legislature, is bicameral and includes the Majlis Watani (the National Assembly) and the Majlis Welayat (the Council of States). The National Assembly is comprised of 450 members, of which 25% of seats (112 seats) are reserved for women. All the 450 members are directly elected for a five year term. The Council of States is comprised of 52 members, of which 50 members are directly elected from the state legislatures. Also, two observers from the Abyei Area Council are appointed.

 

The country’s current President is Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR, First Vice President and Vice President are Salva KIIR Mayardit and Ali Osman TAHA respectively.

 

(Source: sudan.netsudan.govIPU)

 

Regulatory environment

 

Sudan’s is not ranked in the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom. The last time the country was included in the Index was in 2000, when its economic freedom score was 47.2

 

(Source: heritage.org)

 

Corruption perception

 

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a survey to measure the perceived level of corruption across countries worldwide. Sudan is ranked 172nd on the index, indicating high levels of corruption in public departments.

 

(Source: transparency.org)

 

Freedom of information

 

Sudan is ranked 172nd in the World Press Freedom Index 2010 with a score of 85.33, indicating that media in the country is restricted.

 

The newspapers publish only the official views as regulated by military censorship. The government also filters online content.

 

Major newspapers in Sudan include:

 

  • Al-Ra'y al-Amm
    • Al-Ayam
    • Khartoum Monitor
    • Al-Khartoum
    • Alwan
    • Al-Sahafah
    • Al-Anba
    • The Juba Post

 

(Source: BBCrsf.)

 

Judicial system

 

The judicary is an independent body in Sudan. The legal system is based on Islamic law and English common law. The judiciary in Sudan includes a High Court, civil courts and special religious courts. The constitution also recognises a tribal court in the country.

 

(Source: sudan.gov)

 

[Top] Demographic Overview

The total population of Sudan at midyear 2009 was 42.3 million. The country’s population grew by 18.5% from 2001 to 2009.

(Source: UNECA)

Of the total population, 49.6% were females. In 2009, the gender ratio was recorded at 101.4 males per 100 females.

(Source: UN, UNECA)

In 2009, individuals aged below 14 accounted for 39.1% of the total population. The majority of the population, 57.3%, were between 15 and 64 years of age and people aged 65 year and above constituted 3.6% of the population.

Sudan Population by gender

In 2009, 44.4% of the population lived in urban areas. The urban population growth rate between 2005 and 2010 was 4.3% and the growth of the rural population in the same period was 0.7%.

(Source: UN,UNECA)

The median age of the population in 2010 was 20.3 years. The average life expectancy in Sudan is 58.9 years.  The life expectancy in 2010 for females and males was recorded at 59.5 years and 56.5 years respectively.

(Source: UNDP,UN)

In 2010, the infant mortality rate in Sudan was registered at 69.1 (per ‘000).

(Source: UN)

The crude birth rate and crude death rate of Sudan in 2009 was 30.7 (per ‘000) and 10.1 (per ‘000) respectively.

(Source: UNECA)

The major ethnic groups in Sudan include Arabs and Africans.  The majority of the population follows Christianity or Islam.

(Source: state.gov)

The country ranks 154th out of 169 countries on the Human Development Index 2010 conducted by the United Nations. The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and gross enrolment in education).

(Source: UNDP)

[Top] Soft Infrastructure

Education

The adult literacy rate in the country for 2010 was estimated at 60.9%. The primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio in the period between 2005 and 2008 for females was 55.2% and for males it was 61.7%. The expenditure on education in Sudan is estimated at 8.5% of the country’s GDP.

(Source: UNDP, UN)

Healthcare resources

The health care system in the country is supervised by the Federal Ministry of Health.

Only 56% of the population has access to clean water and about 20% of total population in the country are under nourished. The expenditure on health in 2007 was recorded at 1.3% of the country’s GDP.

(Source: UNICEF, UNDP, fmoh, UNECA)

[Top] Hard Infrastructure

Railways

The country has about 4,725 kilometres of single track, narrow gauge railway lines.

(Source: loc.gov)

Ports

The major ports in Sudan are, Port Sudan and Prot Sawakin. Inland ports in the country include Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Juba, and Nimule.

The country has about 4,000 kilometres of inland waterways.

(Source: loc.gov)

Airports

There are 44 airports in the country. Some of the major airports are:

 

Town

Airport name

Runway length (ft.)

Damazin

Damazin

8,200

El Fasher

El Fasher

7,200

El Obeid

El Obeid

8,200

Geneina

Geneina

6,500

Juba

Juba

7,800

Kassala

Kassala

8,200

Khartoum

Khartoum

9,600

Malakal

Malakal

6,000

Port Sudan

Port Sudan

8,200

Port Sudan

Port Sudan Mil

6,500

(Source:aircraft-charter-world)

Telecommunications networks

In 2010, the total number of internet users was 4,200,000, with an internet penetration of 4.6%.

Mobile cellular subscriptions and fixed telephone lines


 

Mobile cellular subscriptions

Fixed telephone lines

2009

15,339,895

370,423

2008

11,991,469

366,200

2007

8,218,092

345,194

2006

4,683,127

499,000

2005

1,827,940

570,000

(Source:internetworldstats.com,ITU)

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